is a legal representative (henceagent) for professional sports figures such as athletes and coaches. They procure and negotiate employment andendorsementcontracts for theathlete or coachwhom they represent. Because of the unique characteristics of thesports industry, sports agents are responsible for communications with team owners, managers, and other individuals. Also, they are responsible for making recommendations. In addition to finding income sources, agents often handlepublic relationsmatters for their clients. In some large sports agencies, such asIMGCreative Artists AgencyRoc Nation SportsandOctagon, agents deal with all aspects of a clients finances, from investment to filing taxes.

Sports agents may be relied upon by their clients for guidance in all business aspects, and sometimes even more broadly. For example, hockey agents start recruiting clients as young as 15, allowing the agent to guide the athletes career before the, which happens usually at 18 years of age.

Due to the length and complexity of contracts, many sports agents are lawyers or have a background in contract law. Agents are expected to be knowledgeable about finance, business management, and financial and risk analysis, as well as sports. It is important for a sports agent to follow trends in sports. Other skills an agent must possess are excellent communication and negotiation skills. Agents must be highly motivated, willing to work long hours, and capable of multitasking. It is very common for agents to be in negotiations on behalf of several clients at one time.1

Some agents are part of large companies, and some are on their own.2. The number of clients an individual agent can handle and how many clients his or her employing agency can handle in total are interdependent variables.

Before the 1990s, mostfootballplayers did not use agents. In some cases, they used their parents as agents. Because of most parents naivety about the football business, these young footballers were often given less-than-stellar contracts by football clubs, which yielded lower salaries than they thought they deserved.3. In Sweden, there were only three licensed agents in 1995.4As of 2002, there were 33. According toFIFA, there were 5,187 licensed association football agents worldwide, with 600 agents in Italy alone.5Since 2001, agents have not been licensed by FIFA. Instead, agents are now licensed directly by each association.

Sports agents generally receive between 4 and 10% of the athletes playing contract, and 10 to 20% of the athletes endorsement contract, although these figures vary.NFLagents are not permitted to receive more than 3%, andNBAagents not more than 4%, of their clients playing contracts.

The popularity of television shows such asEntourage, which stars atalent agentnamedAri Gold, andArliss, have helped glamorize the profession.6Prior to that, movies such asJerry Maguire,Two for the Money, andAny Given Sundaydepicted sports agents. In England, ITVsFootballers Wivesput a new spin on sports agents by casting a no-holds-barred female agentHazel Bailey. The television showBallers, which started in 2015, also shows a strong depiction of sports agents.

Due to the popularity of these works, there has been increase of attention in the profession. Former Prime MinisterTony Blairs son decided to become a football agent.7

Tom Condon: co-head ofCreative Artists Agency(CAA) Football. Clients includePeyton ManningandTony Romo.

James Bus Cook: Clients includeBrett FavreJay Cutler, andCalvin Johnson.

Ben Dogra: co-head of CAA Football. Clients includeAdrian PetersonPatrick Willis, andJoseph Addai.

Jason Fletcher: former player turned agent. Clients includeAntonio CromartieJamar FletcherClinton Portis, andFabian Washington.

Bob LaMonte: founder and president of Professional Sports Representation. Clients includeMike HolmgrenBrad Childress, andJosh McDaniels.

Joe Linta: In 2013, negotiated the richest contract in NFL history forJoe Flacco, despite the fact that hes never been picked for thePro Bowl.

Eugene E. Parker: negotiated the highestsigning bonusesin NFL history forEmmitt SmithandDeion Sanders. Real-life inspiration for flamboyant character Rod Tidwell in the film

Bardia Ghahremani: Clients includeGiovani BernardNathan ShepherdTom Johnson, andJoseph Williams.

Drew Rosenhaus: Clients includePlaxico BurressandTerrell Owens.

Peter Schaffer: President of Authentic Athletix, LLC. Clients include includingJoe ThomasPhil TaylorBarry SandersTrevor PryceJoshua CribbsC. J. AndersonMario Edwards Jr., andHakeem Nicks.

and PGA golfers including two-time PGA tour winnerJonathan KayeandShane Bertsch.

Joel Segal: President of Lagardre Unlimited Football. Clients includeEric FisherReggie Bush,Santonio HolmesandChris Johnson.

Leigh Steinberg: Clients includeTroy AikmanandBen Roethlisberger. Real-life inspiration for fictional sports agentJerry Maguirein the film of the same name (has a cameo appearance in the movie).

Don Yee: Clients includeTom BradyandJimmy Garoppolo.

Ricky Nixon: former player, who was theAFLsfirst full-time player manager

Barry Axelrod: Clients includedJeff BagwellCraig BiggioRick Sutcliffe, and executiveKevin Towers.

Scott Boras: Clients includeAlex RodriguezandPrince Fielder. Boras is known to have negotiated the highest contracts inMajor League Baseballhistory and the history of sports.

Casey Close: Clients includeDerek JeterandRyan Howard.

Greg Genske: Successor in sports agency formerly run byJeff Moorad(baseball) andLeigh Steinberg(football).

Randy Hendricks: Partnered with his brother, Allan; they sold their firm to SFX (nowLive Nation), and bought it back again.

Joe Kehoskie: Small agency; frequently quoted by media regardingCuban defectorsand baseball inLatin America.

Sam & Seth Levinson: Clients includeDavid WrightandJon Lester.

Jim Munsey: Clients includeSam FuldJarrod Saltalamacchia, andSean Burnett.

Burton Rocks: Clients includeKip WellsJim RigglemanMike EaslerRobinson CancelDave EilandPaul DeJongJoe Oliver

Matt Sosnick: Clients includeDontrelle Willis. Sosnick is subject of the book

Arn Tellem: Clients have includedAlbert BelleMike Mussina, andChase Utley. Also a basketball agent (

Joe Urbon: Clients includeJason BayandGrady Sizemore.

Jeff Austinis head ofOctagons basketball division, and was ranked 11th in the 12 Best Sport Agents in the World in 2010 by

His clients includeDavid RobinsonMoses MaloneKirk HinrichStephen CurryandJimmer Fredette.

Doug Davis: Clients includeMetta World PeaceandRoger Mason, Jr..

Bill Duffy: Clients includeRajon RondoJoakim NoahGreg OdenYao MingKlay Thompson, andSteve Nash.

David Falk: Currently semi-retired. Past clients includedMichael JordanPatrick EwingAllen Iverson, andDikembe Mutombo. In the 1990s, was generally considered the most influential player agent in the NBA.

DJ Fisher, Clients includeAdrian GriffinGlory JohnsonToure MurryVictoria ViviansJoel BolomboySheryl Swoopesconsidered by many the modernWorld Wide Wesand the most influential sports marketing agent in the business.

Dan Fegan: Noted for creating several nuances in the most recently expiredNBACollective Bargaining Agreement. Clients includeJohn WallDwight HowardandRicky Rubio.

Aaron Goodwin: Terminated byLeBron JamesDwight HowardAl Horfordand Jamal Crawford. Goodwin now represents over 20 NBA players.

Roger Montgomery: Works for Jay-Z and his company Roc-Nation. ManagedDesmond MasonMaurice EvansandJeremy Lin.

Rob Pelinka: Former basketball player at theUniversity of Michiganand graduate of their law school. Clients includeKobe BryantandCarlos Boozer.

Arn Tellem: Clients includeTracy McGradyJermaine ONealPau Gasol, andJoe Johnson. His clients total salaries in 200708 season added up to more than $210 million.

Tellum left the agent business to become President of theDetroit Pistons.

Neil Fairbrother: Former England cricket player, now Director of Cricket atInternational Sports Management. Clients include:Andrew FlintoffMarcus TrescothickSteve Harmison, andGraham Onions.

Miško Ražnatović: Serbian agent. Through his agency (BeoBasket), he mostly represents European basketball players and coaches as well as American players playing in Europe. He represents many highest paid European basketball stars inEuroleague. His notable clients includeNikola PekovićMirza Teletović, coachDušan IvkovićVassilis SpanoulisNenad KrstićDario ŠarićDeMarcus NelsonJoffrey LauvergneDuško SavanovićPero AntićAleksandar ĆapinMarko KešeljNihad ĐedovićNovica VeličkovićMilenko TepićAleksandar RašićRaško Katićİlkan KaramanEmir PreldžićMarko SimonovićAndrija Žižić, etc. Ražnatović was additionally involved in theDeron Williamstransfer toBeşiktaşduring the 2011 NBA lockout

and owns a basketball clubKK Mega Vizurathat competes in theBasketball League of Serbia.

Craig McKenzie: American basketball agent. Worked forEugene E. ParkeronDeion Sanders. At 27, was one of youngest agents ever to have lottery pick inBonzi Wells.

Clients included three-sport athleteCharlie Ward, and American International Basketball starsMarcus BrownJR Bremer,

Demond MalletandMire Chatman, some of the highest paid players in Europe at one time.

Zoran Savić: Serbian agent. Through his agency (Invictus Sports Group),Barcelona-based Savić represents coachXavi PascualMilan Mačvan, coachŽan TabakDalibor BagarićIvan Opačak, etc.

Jorge Mendes: Portuguese agent. Founder ofGestiFute. Clients includeCristiano RonaldoRadamel FalcaoDavid de GeaDiego CostaRenato SanchesRicardo QuaresmaDecoNaningel Di Maraand managersJos MourinhoAitor KarankaandLuiz Felipe Scolari.

Paul Stretford: English agent. Clients include,Wayne Rooney. Set up Triple S Sports Entertainment Group in 2009 after leaving Proactive Sports, which he originally established.

Pini ZahaviIsraeliagent. Handled deals involving the transfers ofCarlos TevezYakubuandRio Ferdinand.

Mino Raiola: Dutch-based Italian agent. His notable clients arePaul PogbaZlatan IbrahimovićMario Balotelli, and previouslyPavel Nedvd.

Constantin Dumitraşcu: French-based Romanian agent. His agency (Mondial Sports Management) includeEdinson CavaniAlexandre PatoHatem Ben ArfaFernandinhoNemanja MatićDouglas CostaandPhilippe Coutinho.

Milan Ćalasan: Serbian agent. His agency (Mondialvas) representedChristian Karembeu, managerArsne WengerandNikola Žigić.

Claes Elefalk: Swedish agent. Clients includeFredrik LjungbergPontus Farnerud, andNils-Eric Johansson, plus several NHL ice hockey players.

Roger Ljung: Former Swedish international player, owns his own agency (Roger Ljung Promotion AB). RepresentedFredrik Ljungberguntil 2006. Clients includeMarcus AllbäckDaniel AnderssonPatrik AnderssonErik EdmanAndreas IsakssonKim KällströmMarcus LantzandTeddy Lučić.

Martin Dahlin: Former Swedish international player; works for Roger Ljung Promotion AB

Dirk Hebel: Former German footballer, owns his own agency (Fussballmarkt). Has representedMario GötzeSunday OlisehGoran SablićandPatrick Weiser.

Abdilgafar Fali Ramadani: Macedonia-born, Germany-based Albanian agent. His agency (LIAN Sports) that he co-owns withNikola Damjanacrepresents players either from or with family ties to former Yugoslavia such asStevan JovetićLazar MarkovićAdem LjajićZvjezdan MisimovićHaris SeferovićandMarko Marin.

Barry Silkman: English agent. Clients includeDavid VillaDemba BaandRavel Morrison.

Paschalis Tountouris: Greek agent and founder of Prosport Europe. Clients includeGiorgos KaragounisSotiris Ninisand managerYannis Anastasiou.

Walter Palombo: Swiss-based Italian sports advisor, and the founder of Palombo Consulting. His notable clients areAndy CarrollJack WilshereJermaine PennantandJermaine Defoein thePremier League.

Simon Kennedy: British agent who has represented Brian Lara, Stan Collymore, Tom Cleverley and Jimmy White.

Mark Steinberg: Clients includeTiger Woods; former head of golf division atIMG.

Andrew Chandler: Former European Tour golfer. Clients include golfersLee WestwoodErnie ElsDarren ClarkeLouis OosthuizenCharl Schwartzel, andChristina Kim.

Rory McIlroywas a client of Chandler until October 2011, when he left for Dublin-based Horizon Sports Management.

Mike Barnett: former agent ofWayne GretzkyBrett HullPaul CoffeyJaromr JgrJoe ThorntonLanny McDonaldSergei FedorovAlexander MogilnyOwen NolanMats SundinandDany Heatley.

Current senior advisor to the president and .

Gilles Lupien: former NHLdefenceman; current Canadian ice hockey agent. Clients includeRoberto Luongo.

Don Meehan: president of Newport Sports Management. Over 100 clients in the NHL, includingJarome IginlaSteven StamkosP. K. SubbanandChris Pronger.

Tatiana Ovechkina, two-timebasketballgold medalist, is her sonAlexander Ovechkins agent. She brokered a 13-year, $124 million contract.

Allan Walsh in 2004 merged his hockey representation withOctagonHockey. His clients includeMarc-Andr FleuryPatrik ElišMartin HavltandMilan Michlek.

Pat Brisson agent ofSidney Crosby, among others

Keke RosbergJJ LehtoandMika Häkkinen, also managed sonNico Rosbergbetween 200608

Peter Carlisle: Clients includeMichael PhelpsNatalie CoughlinApolo OhnoSeth WescottandChris Klug.

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Colleen Howe(deceased): ice hockey, late president of Power Play International and Power Play Publications managing hockey careers and business interests of her husbandGordie Howeand their sonsMartyandMark Howe.

Camilo Marin(deceased): Cuban-born horse racing agent. Clients includedLaffit Pincay, Jr.Braulio BaezaJorge VelasquezandManuel Ycaza.

Mark McCormack(deceased): American golf agent, and principal originator of modern sports agency industry.

First client wasArnold Palmer. FoundedIMG(originally International Management Group).

Jeff Moorad: Former baseball agent and former partner ofLeigh Steinberg, now baseball executive and part-owner ofSan Diego Padres.

Rob Pelinka: Former basketball player at theUniversity of Michigan. Clients includeKobe BryantCarlos Boozer, andBuddy Hield. Pelinka stepped down from being an agent to be run theLos Angeles Lakersin March 2017.

Charles C. Pyle(deceased): American football; clients includedRed GrangeandWildcat Wilson; founder offirst American Football League(1926).

Gary Wichard(deceased): American football, three dozen clients, the inspiration for the movie

There have been some efforts to transform the sports agency business from an individual, entrepreneurial business, to more of a corporate structure. These experiments met with varying degrees of longevity and success.

: CAA acquired various pieces of the sports agency business of SFX (

corporate agency established by entrepreneurMark McCormack, originally with a specialization in golf and tennis. After the death of McCormack the company was acquired byprivate equitygroupForstmann Little.

British sports agency run by former European Tour golferAndrew Chubby Chandler.

Interperformances International full-service sports agency, specializing in the basketball market.

In January 2017, the company expanded in the United States with intentions of developing into areas beyond basketball; it is known as InterperformancesUSA (IPZ).

International sports agency, sports consulting and event management, active in the football, tennis and golf markets.

A global, full-service sports agency. Currently representing the top CrossFit athletes in the world. The agency also has a leading global marketing and entertainment practice.

Full-service sports agency and event marketing group, traded with advertising and marketing companies in theInterpublic Group.

– Agency representing the most NBA players, run by Mark Bartelstein.

sports agency founded in 2013 by Shawn Carter, better known asJay-Z. Currently in partnership with CAA; first client signed wasRobinson Can.

: acquiredArn Tellems basketball agency from SFX, and usually represents the most players inNBAlottery draft each year.

– sports agency which tries to mix athletes into the world of entertainment and film.

: Imago Sports Management is a Bangladeshi talent and sports based agency.

Some sports agency firms were once prominent, but are now gone or reorganized:

Canadian public company that acquired the Steinberg, Moorad & Dunn agency, then acquired other than agencies including Dan Fegan & Associates and Maximum Sports Management in an unsuccessful effort to build multi-sport corporate agency.

(nowLive Nation, a publicly traded company) in 1998 SFX agreed to pay up to $150 million in cash, stock, and bonuses for F.A.M.E., the sports agency run byDavid Falk, the agent for basketball playersMichael JordanandPatrick Ewing. SFX also acquired two other major sports agencies,Arn Tellems agency (Tellem & Associates) and the baseball-oriented firm run byRandy Hendricksand Allan Hendricks.

SFX would later reverse course, and sell off the pieces of its large sports agency business.

(SMD) a multi-sport agency sold in October 1999 for reported $120 million to Canadian financial firm. Defections of principals, and litigation, followed. Originally led by entrepreneurial agentsLeigh SteinbergandJeff Moorad.

Talent agent: discussion of the agents that represent entertainment talent and may also participate in sports agency.

2010-01-09 at theWayback Machine description of roles of sports agent and some educational programs to prepare for the field

An Industry Of ConglomeratesSports Agent Blog, July 16, 2007

, Nov. 28, 2004, interview with soccer/football player

2011-08-10 at theWayback Machine, May 23, 2002, note: source can be translated into English on the website

So, You Want To Be An Agent? The Entourage EffectSports Agent Blog, Dec. 4, 2008

Blairs son to become a football agentNov. 28, 2009,

Hanzus, Dan (March 4, 2013).Joe Flaccos Ravens contract includes $52M guaranteed.

Meisel, Barry (April 28, 1996).Toomer Catches Fancy Of Giants.

Butler, Steve (March 3, 2008);Show me the money, Ricky Nixon;; Retrieved on March 14, 2009

Agent says Boras group stalking his client MLB ESPN. May 1, 2006

Nicholson, Ben (December 23, 2010).Nationals Sign Sean Burnett To Two-Year Extension.

McGrath, Ben (August 1, 2011).Tampa Bay Rays Late Bloomer Super Sam Fuld. The New Yorker

Interview with Matt

Gus Lubin (November 29, 2010).The 12 Best Sports Agents In The World. Business Insider

Agents again at forefront of NBA labor dispute,

Janowitz, Neil (March 9, 2012).After Backing a Dark Horse, Lins Agent Is Riding High.

Perry, Michael (May 3, 1999).Agents court Xavier star Posey.

Bremer still leading the way in Europe Sports

2012-07-15; The Morning Journal. Bob Finnan. Retrieved July 31, 2008

[2]ESPN. Evan Alexander Demiriel. Retrieved July 23, 2011

Belzer, Jason (September 25, 2017).The Worlds Most Powerful Sports Agents 2017.

Top 10 most influential football agents Pere Guardiola, Pini Zahavi, Jorge Mendes, Paul Stretford, Mino Riaola Metro News

How Tigers Top Man is Managing the Crisis, Wall Street Journal, Dec 8, 2009,Wall Street Journal subscription and fee may be required to access older articles

Reilly, Rick(June 23, 2011).Golfs new era is here.

Tait, Alistair (October 21, 2011).McIlroy leaves Chandlers ISM for Horizon Sports.

Octagon Sports Hockey Team Bios Allan Walsh.

From The Executive Editor: The education of Peter Carlisle.

Colleen Howe, Mrs. Hockey, dies at 76. Associated Press. March 6, 2009

Harig, Bob (July 17, 2011).Darren Clarke returns in major triumph.

Former No. 1 draft pick Kwame Brown might be looking to make an NBA comeback

Interperformances Expands in United States. Archived fromthe originalon 2017-04-25

Jay-Z Launches Roc Nation Sports Teams With CAA to Co-Represent Robinson CanoVariety. April 2, 2013

Wasserman Acquires Tellem Business; SFX Promotes Pelinka.

These Drafts Come and Go, and So Do Agents Fortunes

Steinberg Sells Sports Firm New York Times October 28, 1999. October 28, 1999

Crash Landing- ESPN, by Peter Keating, article about Leigh Steinberg

How to Play the Game: What Every Sports Attorney Needs to Know

, by Darren Heitner, 2014, ABA Book Publishing,

, by Kenneth L. Shropshire, Timothy Davis, 2008, University of Pennsylvania Press,

License to Deal: A Season on the Run with a Maverick Baseball Agent

, by Bob Ruxin with Darren Heitner, 2009, Jones and Bartlett,

, by Mel Stein, 2008, High Stakes Publishing,

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