The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New Yorkis a 1974biographyofRobert MosesbyRobert Caro. The book focuses on the creation and use of power in local and state politics, as witnessed through Moses use of unelected positions to design and implement dozens of highways and bridges, sometimes at great cost to the communities he nominally served. It has been repeatedly named one of the best biographies of the 20th century, and has been highly influential on city planners and politicians throughout the United States. The book won aPulitzer Prizein 1974.

The Power Brokertraces Moses life from his childhood inConnecticutto his early years as an idealistic advocate forProgressivereform of the citys corruptcivil servicesystem. According to Caro, Moses failures there, and later experience working for futurein theNew York State Assemblyand futurein theState Senate, taught him how to acquire and wield power in order to achieve his goals.

By the 1930s, Moses had earned a reputation as a creator of beautiful parks in both the city and state, and later long-sought projects like theVerrazzano-Narrows Bridge, but at the price of his earlier integrity. Caro ultimately paints a portrait of Moses as an unelectedbureaucratwho, through his reputation for getting large construction projects done, amassed so much power over the years that the many elected officials whom he was supposedly responsive to instead became dependent on him. He consistently favoredautomobiletraffic overmass transitand human and community needs, and while making a big deal of the fact that he served in his many public jobs (save as New York City Parks Commissioner) without compensation, lived like a king and similarly enriched those individuals in public and private life who aided him.

While Caro pays ample tribute to Moses intelligence, political shrewdness, eloquence and hands-on, if somewhat aggressive, management style, and indeed gives full credit to Moses for his earlier achievements, it is clear from the books introduction onward that Caros view of Moses is ambivalent (someweaselwordsof the readers ofThe Power Brokerwould conclude that Caro possessed only contempt for his subject).

At 1,336 pages (only two-thirds of the original manuscript), it provides documentation of its assertions in most instances, which Moses (and his supporters after his deathwho?) have consistently attempted to refute. Because Caros narrative includes a great deal of history about New York City itself, the book could be considered to be a monumental scholarly work in its own right, transcending the normal style of a biography that focuses on the life of a single person.

As a reporter forNewsdayin the early 1960s, Caro wrote a long series about whyfromRyetoOyster Bay, championed byRobert Moses, would have been inadvisable, requiring piers so large it would disrupttidal flowsin the sound, among other problems. Caro believed that his work had influenced even the states powerful governorNelson Rockefellerto reconsider the idea, until he saw the statesAssemblyvote overwhelmingly to pass a preliminary measure for the bridge.12

That was one of the transformational moments of my life, Caro said years later. It led him to think about Moses for the first time. I got in the car and drove home toLong Island, and I kept thinking to myself: Everything youve been doing is baloney. Youve been writing under the belief that power in a democracy comes from theballot box. But heres a guy who has never been elected to anything, who has enough power to turn the entire state around, and you dont have the slightest idea how he got it.1

In 1966, his wife Ina Caro changed the topic of her graduate thesis to write about theVerrazzano-Narrows Bridge, while Caro was aNieman Fellowat Harvard University taking courses inurban planningandland use. He found that academics notions of highway planning contrasted with what he had seen as a reporter. Here were these mathematical formulas about traffic density and population density and so on, he recalled, and all of a sudden I said to myself: This is completely wrong. This isnt why highways get built. Highways get built because Robert Moses wants them built there. If you dont find out and explain to people where Robert Moses gets his power, then everything else you do is going to be dishonest.1

He found that despite Moses illustrious career, no biography had been written, save the highlypropagandisticBuilder for Democracyin 1952.3So he decided to undertake the task himself, beginning the seven-year process of hundreds of interviews meticulously documented as well as extensive original archival research, listed in the notes on sources in an appendix.

Originally, he had expected it to take nine months to research and write the book. As that time stretched into years, he ran out of money and despaired of ever finishing it. Ina, his wife and research assistant, sold the family home on Long Island and moved the Caros to an apartment inthe Bronxwhere she had taken a teaching job, so that her husband could continue.1

Moses did his best to try to keep this book from being writtenas he had done, successfully, with so many previous, stillborn, biographies.4After Caro had been working on the book for more than a year, Moses agreed to sit for a series of seven interviews, one lasting from 9:30 A.M. until evening, providing much material about his early life, but when Caro began asking questions (for having interviewed others involved in the subjects in question and having examined the recordsmany of them secretdealing with them, it was necessary to reconcile the sometimes striking disparity between what he told me and what they told me) the series of interviews was abruptly terminated.4Moses brother Paul was to provide Caro with the reason behind their decades-old family feud but died of aheart attackhours before he could explain.citation needed

The final manuscript that Caro turned in ran to about 1,050,000 words. EditorRobert Gottliebtold him that the maximum possible length of a trade book was about 700,000 words, or 1,280 pages. When Caro asked about splitting the book into two volumes, Gottlieb replied that he might get people interested in Robert Moses once. I could never get them interested in him twice. So Caro had to cut down his manuscript, which took him months.5

The Power Brokercaused quite a stir when it was published, after the One Mile chapter ran as an excerpt inThe New Yorker.citation neededThe chapter highlighted the difficulties in constructing one section of theCross-Bronx Expresswayand the way Moses ran roughshod over the interests of the section ofEast Tremontthe road effectively destroyed. Before publication, Caro, largely unknown at the time, dared to challenge the magazines legendary editor,William Shawn, over his changes to Caros prose. It was common for the magazine to edit excerpts to conform to itshouse style, which did not make allowance for many of the authors narrative flourishes, such as single-sentence paragraphs. Caro also complained that much of his work had been compressed.1

The book won thePulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiographyin 1974, as well as theFrancis Parkman Prizeawarded by theSociety of American Historiansto the book that best exemplifies the union of the historian and the artist. On June 12, 1975, The New York Chapter of theAmerican Institute of Architectsconferred a Special Citation upon Robert Caro….for reminding us once again, that ends and means are inseparable. In 1986, it was recognized by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, and in 2001 the Modern Library selected it as one of the hundred most important books of the 20th century. In 2005, Caro was awarded the Gold Medal in Biography from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. In 2010, PresidentBarack Obama, after awarding Caro a National Humanities Medal, said I think about Robert Caro and readingThe Power Brokerback when I was 22 years old and just being mesmerized, and Im sure it helped to shape how I think about politics. In 2010, Caro was also inducted into the New York State Writers Hall of Fame. David Klatell, dean of theColumbia University Graduate School of Journalism, has recommended the book to new students to familiarize themselves with New York City and the techniques of investigative reporting.6

Moses and his supporters considered the book to be overwhelmingly biased against him, and what his supporters saw as a record of unprecedented accomplishment. Moses put out a 23-page typed statement challenging some of its assertions (he claimed he never used the anti-Italian slurs the book attributes to him aboutFiorello La Guardia, for instance).78

In later years, some further criticisms have been made of the book. In the 21st century, as many have decried the inability of American public institutions to construct and maintaininfrastructureprojects,citation neededa more positive view of Mosess career has emerged, in explicit reaction to his portrayal inThe Power Broker.9This re-evaluation has included museum exhibits and a 2007 book (Robert Moses and the Modern City) described as having a revisionist theme running throughout.10In 2014, the author reminisced about his seven years labor on the book inThe New York Times Sunday Book Review.11

McGrath, Charles (April 15, 2012).Robert Caros Big Dig.

The Power Broker Turns 40: How Robert Caro Wrote a Masterpiece.

Studies in Power: An Interview with RobertCaro.

Klatell, David.M.S. Fall 2007 In 2010, President Barack Obama, after awarding Mr. Caro a National Humanities Medal, said I think about Robert Caro and reading

back when I was 22 years old and just being mesmerized, and Im sure it helped to shape how I think about politics.CurriculumColumbia University Graduate School of Journalism

Robert Moses Response to Robert Caros The Power Broker.

Boeing, G. (2017).We Live in a Motorized Civilization: Robert Moses Replies to Robert Caro.

Pogrebin, Robin (2007-01-23).Rehabilitating Robert Moses.

Powell, Michael (2007-05-06).A Tale of Two Cities.

Caro, Robert A. (10 December 2014).AUTHORS NOTE: The Power Broker, 40 Years Later.

The theme of Mr. Moses speech was a bitter one: the ingratitude of the public toward men who had done so much for the public. Some day, he said, let us sit on this bench and reflect on the gratitude of man. In front of me the row of gray heads nodded in appreciation. R. M. had built so much, created so much, they whispered to one another. Why didnt people understand? Why werent they grateful?

Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography-winning works

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